Active reading exercise: How do muscles work?

Image: D. Keeno, 17 November 2017.

How do muscles work?

Muscles work by getting shorter. We say that they contract.

Muscles are attached to bones by strong tendons. When a muscle contracts, it pulls on the bone, and the bone can move if it is part of a joint.

Muscles can only pull, but not push. This would be a problem if a joint was controlled by just one muscle. As soon as the muscle had contracted and pulled on a bone, that would be it, with no way to move the bone back again. The problem is solved by having muscles in pairs, called antagonistic pairs.

To move the bone back the second muscle of the antagonistic pair contracts. Examples of antagonistic pairs are biceps and triceps.

How does your forearm move?

The elbow joint lets our forearm move up or down. It is controlled by two muscles, the biceps on the front of the upper arm, and the triceps on the back of the upper arm.

The biceps and the triceps are an antagonistic pair.

  • When the biceps muscle contracts, the forearm moves up.
  • When the triceps muscle contracts, the forearm moves down. 

    This solves the problem. To lift the forearm, the biceps contracts and the triceps relaxes. To lower the forearm again, the triceps contracts and the biceps relaxes.

Tasks:

1. Box how muscles work.

2. Circle what attaches muscles to bones.

3. Underline what happens when muscles contract.

4. Underline why muscles need to work in antagonistic pairs.

5. Describe in your own words how antagonistic pairs work.

6. Explain in your own words how your forearm moves.

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